Gard’s surveyors see a lot of poorly maintained cleats in older vessels, and the common problems are that the cleat is seriously weakened by corrosion or that the rubber disc is hardened and without elasticity. Surveyors often find such wedges to be missing, not engaged or not providing any force on the adjoining panel due to wear or distortions. Although robust, hatch covers will leak if compression surfaces are not aligned correctly and if gaskets are damaged or worn. Hatch covers are generally referred to as heavy-duty shipboard equipment and, as the wording suggests, this is generally material that can withstand rough handling and does not need consistent maintenance. CONCLUSIONRegardless of method, Gard Services recommends members to test their vessels’ hatch covers regularly, to watch out for indications of deterioration, and to initiate maintenance early on, ensuring cargo is carried under safe conditions. The deficiencies should also be reported on “HC Forms” and (e.g. It is crucial for safety at sea and protection of the environment to maintain hatch cover weathertightness and strength. A hose test is conducted by … Hatch cover hose test Read More » *"Q���nk ��vwv��sf~s���=���37�p��&&�I�{Kʶ�%���ZeXb�4�������e�b������"m!�~d�qp��iIQ^yy^iENQAY^�������^���,p��cp̕�yq0��B0L�a&u�?�M�X �n�-ým�q '��������� X�s3>��`c&3�sDžx1ދ?1�2�͖�I��9��O�S�ry�;�� �� �,�-F-U�;�޳J�*��mu����w|��W�W�O6�6���ڞ��������tq8�P���c�L~���t����}�%½�z��9¹�y����T���g�N�ŜLk�as����E�ɹ�ZL���"�]�kԐ���������ۃ���/�����afXyї��ȗ���%��n�j���xj8H��}&����.�c6���H��?o*f���ޞ��U�U]3�Tw�L;�ִ#��m�5��ς�. Such remedies are often requested by cargo owners or charterers to reduce the risk of water ingress. The snugs, which are welded to the hatch cover panels, may be heavily corroded or damaged, offering no strength to the assembly. Hatch cover panel seals - Double rubber lip seal – In case of reduced weathertightness on cellular container vessels, some classes allow to use a joint between panels fitted with a double rubber lip seal preventing rain and spray from entering the hold. The advantage of this test method is that one can see exactly where the problem is. Gard’s surveyors have met superintendents who are satisfied that the hatch covers float on the gaskets alone, and who even damage the gaskets further by increasing the force of the vertical periphery cleats. forces from the hatch cover to the hull, in the predetermined locations, must be designed to allow flexible deformation of the hull to take place, while simultaneously maintaining the correct shape and position of the hatch cover for weathertightness at sea. 3.2 Weathertight Hatch Covers 3.2.1 Drainage is to be arranged inside the line of gasket by means of a gutter bar or vertical extension of the hatch side and end coaming. Also, SOLAS regulations for the issuance of an International Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate touch upon the subject, and require openings on deck to have the means to be watertight. Rubber gaskets – When leakages occur, the rubber gaskets of the hatch covers are usually hard, deeply and permanently compressed, chafed or loose, and may even have sections missing. In a weathertight hatch cover system, various key parts need to work in unison in order to ensure that weathertightness is achieved and can be maintained throughout the voyage. Wooden hatch covers, consisting of beams and boards over the opening and covered with tarpaulins, were once used but are no longer fitted. Gard Services recommends members to perform the hose test regularly between cargoes, to prove hatch covers are in good order. On one vessel the crew had run out of tape and tried to improve the watertightness of the cargo hatches by installing a rope covered with cement around the perimeter of the covers. The second edition has been extensively revised and updated, and includes information on hatch cover testing, recent IACS contributions to hatch cover design and operation, plus a new glossary of terms. Gard’s surveyors have seen gaskets being replaced by crew every six months due to the steel to steel contact not being correctly achieved. 0000002616 00000 n If cargo hatches can not easily be closed due to operational problems, there is also the risk of cargo damage by rain water during times of loading and discharge. Gaskets may be of solid rubber, or have a hollow or sponge core. Hence, Gard Services sees good maintenance and proper testing of hatch covers as a clear loss prevention issue. 2 UK P&I Club – Hatch Covers History In 1929, the first ever steel hatch covers were introduced and patented by the brothers Robert and Joseph MacGregor (MacGregor & Company) and in 1941 the prototype of the single pull hatch covers was made available on the market and further developed. www.gard.no/web/updates/content/52481/tightness-of-hatch-covers Hatchtite™ is a lightweight, portable and robust instrument for accurate and reliable cargo hatch cover testing for water tightness on bulk carriers. In bad weather, sealing tape can and does wash off. 0000024144 00000 n 1. 0000001507 00000 n Means of securing – There are various ways to secure the hatch covers once they are in place, depending on the type. Some covers may have internal cleats on torsion bars, operated manually or automatically. $21.95 $ 21. This process should include the inspection and testing of hatch cover weathertightness using high-pressure fire hoses. When leakages occur, ship managers may blame weather conditions rather than possible lack of maintenance of hatch cover tightness systems. Even on new ships hatch covers are only truly weather tight in the static condition; weather tightness can't be guaranteed in dynamic conditions such as at sea and especially in rough weather. Wooden wedge type coversWooden hatch covers appear to be the connecting link between traditional wooden sailing vessels of past and today’s modern ships made of steel. The responsibility for maintaining a vessel’s hatch covers and locking devices lies with the owner and operator, but class and flag state are responsible for certifying compliance with classification and load line rules. Hatch covers may have distortions making it difficult to achieve watertightness of the cross joints by the original cleating system. The full weight of the hatch covers is not supposed to be borne by the gaskets alone, only to the extent that the correct design compression of the gasket is achieved, and then limited by the hatch cover resting steel to steel on the coaming top. 3 Maintenance of hatch covers and hatch open ing, closing, securing and sealing systems . Ultrasonic Test 4. 0000019586 00000 n Hose Testing 2. The weathertightness of hatch covers is very important. Rightly so, because many problems are directly linked to their condition, and the crew may be able to change the gaskets themselves. The leather cases are made from English cow hides and use a process called “splitting”. The convention requires hatch covers to be “weathertight”, which may lead to arguments on how tight the hatch covers really need to be, as the word “watertight” is not used. The hatch cover has to be weatherproof and has to remain so when conditions change as a result of waves, temperature and cargo. DasMarine 2Pack of 6 inch Hatch Round Non Slip Inspection Hatch w/Detachable Cover for Marine Boat Yacht, 7.8" External Diameter, 6" Opening Size. The bonding of the tape is not stronger than allowed by the surface condition of the hatch covers and any firm tightness around cleats, etc., is difficult to achieve. For stable and smooth operation of the hatch covers on board, the panels should be stiff. Therefore, P&I clubs require vessels to always maintain hatch covers in a weathertight condition. What Can Be Done to Reduce Leakage of Hatch Covers? If a hard water jet is not aimed directly at the hatch cover joints, the test may be worthless. Tag: hatch cover weathertightness. From a surveyor’s point of view, the hose test also has the disadvantage of not being fool-proof: the surveyor will not be able to observe how the spraying is performed on the outside, while he is inside the cargo hold looking for leakages. For a more complete, practical guide to all types of hatch covers, readers may wish to refer to the book Hatch Cover Inspections – A Practical Guide, recently published by The Nautical Institute.3. Various Hatch Cover Tests- A Practical Guide. TIGHTNESS TESTSThere are mainly three different ways to test hatch cover tightness, and they all have some pros and cons. Custom Window Well Covers made out of unbreakable, crystal clear Polycarbonate. All such means are, however, only considered to be temporary repairs, and should not be allowed to replace a fully functional original tightness system. Hatch cover steel structure . trailer <]>> startxref 0 %%EOF 48 0 obj<>stream Many different types of hatch cover rubber packing (also referred to hatch cover rubber sealing) are used between hatch covers and coaming to achieved weathertightness. Testing of vessel’s hatch covers for weathertightness can be performed by different methods. 0000001298 00000 n 0000018926 00000 n In the ships of today the cargo is no longer carried on board on the backs of strong men, and the speedy loading and discharge methods require much larger deck openings. However, the Load Line Convention itself states that “weathertight” means that in any sea condition water will not penetrate the ship. On oldcleats the rubber washer is often hard and treads and nutsare corroded due to lack of maintenance. The method of checking must be reported. Such damage will allow the water to overflow to the cargo hold instead of being drained to the drain pipes, and should be repaired and always kept in good condition. Testing the Weathertightness of Hatch Covers. Read our latest news and insights. It is recommended to use original gaskets and to seek the hatch cover manufacturer’s advice. Wooden wedge type coversWooden hatch covers appear to be the connecting link between traditional wooden sailing vessels of past and today’s modern ships made of steel. Temporary repairs – In older vessels there are often signs of rather desperate efforts to keep hatch covers tight by external taping, and by applying foams and fillers at joints between panels, etc. A few tons of water into a cargo hold may not represent a risk to the safety of the ship, but even very small amounts of water may for instance damage a sensitive steel cargo. Increased investment and attention to hatch cover maintenance and repairs will ultimately save the members a lot of money. 4.0 out of 5 stars 7. Good and original gaskets may be rapidly damaged by over- compression if this steel to steel contact is not achieved. Note compressionbar is rounded at top, which is better for the gaskets. Modern covers may be self cleating or secured by hydraulically operated cleats or wedges, but the most common type on older vessels is the manual quick-acting cleat, having a cam at the upper end, which is forced onto a snug on the hatch cover panels. When checking the text of such procedures, Gard’s surveyors often see that not much attention is paid to the vessel’s hatch covers. 3.2.2 Cross-joints of multi-panel covers are to be arranged with drainage of water from Such damage may be a result of panels slamming against each other or against the hatch coaming top, during closing operations. 3.1 . When hatch cover panels are not sufficiently linked together by hinges, they also need cleats across the cross joints of the panels. The latest and most accurate way of testing hatch covers is by using an ultrasonic apparatus. 3.1 . In the worst cases, all the wedges have been removed and are nicely stored within the forecastle. Hatch cover rubber packing Many different types of hatch cover rubber packing (also referred to hatch cover rubber sealing) are used between hatch covers and coaming to achieved weathertightness. We can not address the particular problems of all types of hatch covers in an article, but will draw readers’ attention to the most common problems detected during condition surveys. Their maintenance is cumbersome and often neglected, and retaining channels are often reduced by corrosion and are thus not able to provide sufficient support of the gaskets. Wear and distortion of items like stoppers, guide rails, track ways, flanged wheels, etc., may allow the panels excessive sideways and longitudinal play and result in the gaskets landing off centre on the compression bars. Often the inner edge of the gutters, being the top of the vertical hatch coaming plate, may have been chafed by wires, hit by grabs or reduced by corrosion. High quality Marine Steel Weathertight Hatch Covers Marine Deck Hatches Access Hatch from China, China's leading ship hatch cover product, with strict quality control boat hatch covers factories, producing high quality boat hatch covers products. • It is important to ensure that the cargo hatch covers’ system components are … 0000020484 00000 n If there has been insufficient compression between the compression bar and the hatch cover gasket, there will be a lack of or incomplete chalk marks on such areas of the gasket. hatch covers during heavy weather. Such compression bars should be chipped and maintained by coating. It is always recommended to consult the manufacturer. 95. HATCH COVER PROBLEMSWhen hatch covers are leaking, the rubber gaskets are the first to gain attention. For ship types with expected large movements between hatch covers and coaming while at sea, manufacturers may have designed gaskets not landing on a compression bar, but directly on the flat top of the coaming. The design compression for common gasket types is usually in the range of 10-15 mm, depending on the thickness, and a manufacturers’ rule of thumb is to replace the packing when a permanent impression reaches half the design value. These gutters are not always well maintained and may have layers of corrosion. Class surveyors are not particularly trained to care for the cargo, with the result that cargo hatch covers approved during a load line inspection may fail during a P&I condition survey. • Proper weathertightness is a key factor in keeping cargo dry. The method is rather time-consuming, and it can only be used in dry weather. Whenever closing of hatch panels includes “attacks” by crew members armed with heavy crowbars and sledge hammers, something is wrong both with the guiding of the hatch covers and with the general maintenance policy on board. The pipes need to be fitted with a non-return device, in order to avoid that green sea on deck finds its way into the cargo hold through the drains. 0000011739 00000 n publication Hatch Cover Inspections: A Practical Guide by Walter Vervloesem. 2 Maintenance of hatch covers and hatch opening, closing, securing and sealing systems 2.1 Lack of weathertightness may be attributed to: .1 normal wear and tear of the hatch cover system: deformation of the hatch coaming 5% coupon applied at checkout Save 5% with coupon (some sizes/colors) Get it as soon as Fri, Nov 20. That represents a danger to the crew and stevedores, and the hatch covers themselves may be seriously damaged if they fall. This brochure has been designed to help those involved in inspecting, testing and evaluating the weathertight integrity of hatch covers in making well informed decisions, and assist owners and shipboard personnel in maintaining their 3 Maintenance of hatch covers and hatch open ing, closing, securing and sealing systems . A recommendation to carry out a hose test of the hatch covers “as necessary” gives surveyors some freedom to omit the test when faced with practical difficulties (e.g., loaded vessel when no ultrasonic testing apparatus is available) and to carry out only a visual inspection. WEATHERTIGHT OR WATERTIGHT?The International Load Line Convention contains principles for assigning minimum freeboard to ships: limits to how deep vessels are allowed to be loaded to perform a safe voyage. Inspection and Maintenance. Heat applied by welding to a weakened steel channel may cause deformations, making tightness difficult. Lack of weathertightness may be attributed to: .1 normal use of the hatch cover system, such as deformation of the hatch coaming or cover due to impact, wear of the friction pads where fitted, or wear and tear of the Retaining channels – The gasket retaining channels are among the weakest construction parts of the hatch covers. Mareflex MF 30 Hatch Cover Tape is a self-adhesive heavy duty sealing tape which can protect goods against damage caused by water leakage. Some defects affecting the weathertightness of hatch covers can be attributed to their design. In sailing vessels the cargo hatches used to be small, as small as possible, in order to preserve the integrity of the hull. Good water pressure is needed, but not always produced, and of course the test can not be used if temperatures fall below zero. It addresses primarily the safety of the vessel, not the safety of the cargo. Watertight Hatch Cover Testing The world-leading ABS & RINA Approved Portascanner® WATERTIGHT is an ultrasonic hatch cover tester for testing watertight and weather-tight seals. Non-weathertight hatch covers above superstructure deck (Load Line Convention 1966 Regulations 2(5) and 14(2)) The requirements for coaming height and weathertightness of hatch covers located above the superstructure deck are left to the satisfaction of the flag Administration by Regulations 2(5) and 14(2) of the Load Line Convention. Tightness Test 1 minute. When gaskets are replaced, one should always use the opportunity to clean the retaining channels for rust and have them thoroughly coated. It is less expensive to keep hatch covers weathertight by regular maintenance and attention to detail, than to pay claims for wet-damaged cargo. Hatchtite™ is a lightweight, portable and robust instrument for accurate and reliable cargo hatch cover testing for water tightness on bulk carriers. HATCH SURVEY - REPORTING 5 Surveyors should make a detailed examination of the ship and question the ship's staff in order to complete the attached Club forms “Ship 1”, “Ship 3” and any “HC Form(s)”. Hatch Cover Bearing Pads. MacGregor’s reliable and proven folding hatch cover technology allows for efficient and safe cargo handling operations. 5.11 Other Hatch Cover Designs 5.12 Other Cleating Methods 6 The Differences Between Watertightness and weathertightness 6.1 Ram – nek Tape and Foam 7 Care and Maintenance of Hatch Covers 8 Reasons for Hatch Cover Testing by Various Organisations and the Role of the Marine Surveyor in these Tests 8.1 National Based Survey Organisations 95. Its requirements include the creation of procedures for maintenance of the vessel and for inspections and reporting. The condition of the hose test can be improved by fitting rags at the outlets from the cross over joints, to contain the water in the spaces between the panels. The effects of such remedies are also very limited if heavy weather is encountered. There are a lot of low quality rubber gaskets on the market. Surveyors have also seen vessels with hatch covers in poor condition being fitted with tarpaulins, pulled down at sides by ropes fixed to any pipe or fittings on deck. A remedy may be to weld a flat steel at the bottom of the retaining channel, but before doing so, it should be seriously considered whether the time has come for a full renewal of the retaining channels. The solution is to fit new resting pads of adjusted thickness to achieve a correct design pressure of the gaskets. Short pieces of gasket should be avoided, as they often fall out later. The point is to have gaskets of sufficient resilience to achieve tightness when resting against compression bars of adjoining panels and hatch coamings. Hatch Cover Hose Test Hatch Covers Hose Test Hatch cover hose tests are conducted to determine weathertightness of hatch covers. 0000020173 00000 n Also, corrosion and physical wear of fixed parts of hatch coamings, hatch panels, storage racks, etc., may lead to leaking hatch covers. 0000010640 00000 n The guide describes the various types of hatch cover in use today and explains how they should be inspected, maintained and operated to ensure maximum effectiveness and safety. Normally the experienced operator and the “10 per cent open hatch value” will deal with this. Chalk Test 3. Tarpaulins will help against sea spray, but will be ripped off if all edges are not firmly wedged in against the coaming. 3.1 Lack of weathertightness may be attributed to: .1 normal use of the hatch cover system, such as deformation of the hatch coaming or cover due to impact, wear of the friction pads where fitted, or wear and tear of the cleating arrangement which may be corrected by a … Due to the frequent operation of the covers and the loads and forces they are exposed to, a vessel’s hatch covers will age faster than the ship, and will need constant maintenance or major renewals during their lifespan. A well known problem on ships of some age is advanced corrosion around the passage of the cleat through the hatch coaming top plate. Using this method, a surveyor reduces his chances of being fooled by the crew if he chooses to observe the testing from inside the hold. It is certainly cheaper than doing the job in a shipyard, but in all fairness the crew can not always be expected to do as good a job. This process should include the inspection and testing of hatch cover weathertightness using high-pressure fire hoses. 6 The Club requires a weathertightness check of the hatch covers. It also includes regulations on how to construct and equip vessels to avoid ingress of sea water through various openings. Hatch covers are inspected annually, by a class surveyor, for the purposes of the two certificates mentioned above, so class societies have a major influence on the degree of hatch cover maintenance needed as far as certification is concerned. Hatch cover components: To obtain the required safety margins and to guarantee a trouble-free operational lifetime, the hatch cover system has to be maintained as instructed, and critical spare part components, such as the hatch cover bearing pads, have to be of original design. Deficiencies should be reported to the Master, who should be asked for his intentions to remedy them. Even when sealing tape is used with success a hatch cover will only be weathertight. requires a good understanding of hatch covers, their operation and tightness as well as industry requirements. The securing of cleats and cross-joint wedges will not in any improve hatch cover weathertightness. One will often find, however, that there is evidence of both: bad weather and poor condition of hatch cover tightness systems. Tocope with deeply compressed and hardened original gaskets,the crew has glued a 10 mm thick rubber liner on top. 46 0 obj<> endobj xref 46 31 0000000016 00000 n No cargo should be carried on hatch covers unless they have been designed for such loads. It is certainly necessary to test hatch covers much more often than every five years, for the safety of the cargo, and class societies should encourage surveyors to do that. 0000002130 00000 n Unfortunately, there are two serious problems with the LLC as a form of weathertightness evidence. the maintenance cost has to be low and the service life long. 5.11 Other Hatch Cover Designs 5.12 Other Cleating Methods 6 The Differences Between Watertightness and weathertightness 6.1 Ram – nek Tape and Foam 7 Care and Maintenance of Hatch Covers 8 Reasons for Hatch Cover Testing by Various Organisations and the Role of the Marine Surveyor in these Tests 8.1 National Based Survey Organisations The weathertight sealing of the cross-joints between pontoon hatch covers that are operated non-sequential or partially have traditionally been achieved by different air inflated sealing systems. At least some support from a skilled worker or supervisor is recommended. The lay-out of the different bearing pads consists of a bearing pad (1), a shim plate, an elastic piece, a housing frame (2), a locking pin and a mating plate (3). A unit emitting ultrasound is placed inside the cargo hold and the operator registers “leakages” of ultrasound through the hatch covers using a handled detector. However, the prolonged use of tape increases corrosion in the cross-joint and side plate. - Swing-seals – Hydraulically- or manually-operated seals for weathertight non-sequential operation. Understanding hatch covers Loadline& Weathertightness: Keep water out in anyseaconditionand proper securingof hatchcovers (Loadline) 27/03/2014 AlandiaMarine –Hatch Cover Seminar. The hatch coaming gutters will drain the water aft to drain pipes. Notice of Readiness and the commencement of laytime, California clamps down on air pollution from ships at berth, US EPA proposes new vessel discharge standards, 11/2020: Status report as at 20 August 2020, 7/2011: Inter-Club New York Produce Exchange Agreement 1996 (as amended September 2011), Gard's commitment to the UN Global Compact. Also, it is clearly seen from the chalk marks if the gasket lands off-centre on the compression bar. Once again, the cleat and wedges need not be in a secured position. A significant portion of cargo claims is caused by water damage, of which numerous cases relate to ingress of sea water via the hatch covers of dry cargo vessels. Index of all insects found in Michigan. The master of the vessel may choose such means, if he has doubts about the tightness of the vessel’s gaskets and has a sensitive cargo to carry. I Hatch cover survey checklists for weathertightness II Note on IACS Z17 (1997) procedural requirements for service suppliers III … Hatch cover bearing pads or also often referred to as hatch cover support pads. A watertight hatch cover is a cover designed to prevent the passage of water in either direction under a head of water for which the surrounding structure is designed. Crew member performing a hose test:in order to keep dry he stands away from the hatch coversand the pressure at the hatch cover gasked is reduced. Since 1968, West Marine has grown to over 250 local stores, with knowledgeable Associates happy to assist. Hatch coaming top with gutter, compressionbar and bearing pads in good condition. Hatch covers are generally referred to as heavy-duty shipboard equipment and, as the wording suggests, this is generally material that can withstand rough handling and does not need consistent maintenance. Members are strongly recommended to include instructions from hatch cover manufacturers in the vessel maintenance program, including records of maintenance, tests and repairs. Non-return valves easily clog up, so that they must either be frequently opened up for cleaning, or it may be better to fit a three-foot canvas hose to the drain pipe instead. For older vessels the steel to steel contact will often be affected by wear and corrosion of the resting pads, or if these are not fitted, by reduction of the lower edge of the hatch covers and by wear and corrosion of the contact area on the hatch coaming top. To ensure that the hatch covers are weathertight the sealing system needs to be in a good condition. Hatch Covers Hatch openings are covered by weathertight steel hatch covers extending to between 45 - 60% of the ship's breadth and 57 - 67% of the length of each cargo hold. Gard’s surveyors have seen rubber liners glued on top of hardened and worn out gaskets, and tape glued on top of compression bars to build them up to improve compression. Damaged corners are often noted in hatch covers of the single pull type on older vessels. 0000021125 00000 n Regrettably, however, some owners limit hatch cover attention to replacing the gaskets when worn out, and miss out on many of the finer points of hatch cover maintenance. The purpose of the International Safety Management (ISM) Code is to provide standards for the safe management and operation of ships. - Folding hatch covers – Folding hatch covers for weather decks can be either of the low or high stowing type. sealing tape, foam, cement or non-class approved systems). Folding hatch covers are used on Handysize and Handymax bulk carriers, where it is particularly important to maximise hatch dimensions in relation to the ship’s beam. There is some truth in that, and the operator and his principals need to exercise some care in judging the results, as even quite small, insignificant “leaks” may be detected. Factors affecting watertightness: Maintenance of the steel-to-steel contact surface Hatch covers are designed to make steel-to-steel contact between a defined part of the hatch cover and coaming when closed. These may be in the shape of wedges or screw-cleats. Visual Inspection of The Cargo Hold Most hatch covers have movable parts like hinges, hydraulic cylinders, wheels, cleats, toggles, all exposed to wear and tear over time and having an influence on how well the hatch covers work. Retaining channels may also have been damaged by contact of grabs, wires for pulling, etc. 0%. These gutters will drain the water to the hatch coaming gutters, and it is important to check that they are not fractured or damaged at the ends, so water drains down the inside of the coamings instead. 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Cover joints hatch cover weathertightness the panels should be reported to the crew and stevedores, and Egress Join! To withstand up to 400 pounds and is UV resistant have some pros and.. Grates, and they all have some pros and cons Grates, the... Place, depending on the type from entering cross or side joints to over 250 local stores, with variety!