This article was most recently revised and updated by. Immigration to Kazakhstan for oralmandar continued to evolve during the middle transition years (1997-2002) with a new legal framework and changing annual quotas. Â Namara is now working toward a master’s degree in geography at the University of British Columbia, where he plans to focus on spatial modeling of anthropogenic changes in grassland ecosystems. This website provides an overview of our work during the 2004-2010 period and the people who have helped us understand the dynamic relationships between gender, economics, identity, and geo-politics that shape the complex decision-making processes and outcomes of transnational migration in this region. Those within the quota qualify for additional assistance, including housing, transportation of family and goods from origin to destination and a lump sum allowance for each family member. Â The Sustainability of Rural Systems: Local and Global Challenges and Opportunities. Â Association of American Geographers, AAG Research Grant. 2010. 2017. Dzungaria was subjected to mass Kazakh settlement after the defeat of the Dzungars. In 1920, however, Kazakhstan was incorporated as an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union and in 1924 Mongolia became the second communist country in the world. Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Seattle, Washington, April 2011. During socialism and even more rapidly since 1989, there has been a gradual transformation of gender roles and gender relations. Conversations About Our Scholarly Lives (CASL) sponsored by the Center for Scholarship and Teaching, 3 May 2010. The Kazakhs mainly live in the Altai Mountains. When the former USSR dissolved, and Kazakhstan declared independence, PRESIDENT Nazarbayev welcomed back the diasporic Kazakh community, including Kazakhs from Mongolia. Â This is age dependent, however. American Anthropological Association 107th Annual Meeting. Kazakhs (Qazaqs, Kazaks) are a Turkic-speaking people living in several modern countries including (but not limited to) Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia. Maribor, Slovenia. But Kazakh does not have the difficulties that inflecting languages have with grammatical gender and multiple systems of declension and conjugation. The diet consisted largely of milk products supplemented by mutton. Mongolian Kazakhs are traditionally semi-nomadic pastoralists, herding sheep, goats, yaks, camels and horses. Â The Kazakh population is predominantly Muslim. Barcus, H. Invited Lecture: âWhy do all the Yurts have Satellite Dishes? San Francisco, California. Families, U.S. Who are the Mongolian Kazakhs? This period also witnessed a rapid and important change in the freedom of movement both within Mongolia and across borders. from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and Ph.D. from Kansas State University, both in Geography. KAZAKHS - MONGOLIA LESSON 2 - PEOPLE Cult-ED. The unequal burdens of repatriation: A gendered view of the transnational migration of Mongoliaâs Kazakh Population. Calculate how many people belong to the Kazakh culture. Collaborative Research: Networks, Gender, Culture and the Migration Decision-Making Process: A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia. Womenâs Studies Brown Bag Lecture. Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia. The Kazakhs are different people from the Mongols in many ways. Werner, C. and H. R. Barcus. 20 November 2009. Notable here were the Mongolian Kazakhs. She worked as a research assistant on this project from May 2009-May 2010, studying issues of citizenship and the state in the migration of Mongolian Kazakhs. Barcus Holly. BUT, statements like "GK was Kazakh" is totally absurd and wrong. She also studied Linguistics in Russia to improve her language skills in 2008 and attended an English Teacherâs Mentor Program as well as a conference titled âImprovement of Education in Remote Areas-For the Achievement of SDGsâ in Tokyo, Japan (2018). Admissions, International The Mongolian Kazakhs Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. Nagoya, Japan August 2013. Kazakhs are a proud people, intent on maintaining their culture, religion, and way of life. Barcus, Holly. Celia Emmelhainz is the anthropology and qualitative research librarian at University of California, Berkeley. 2009. Barcus, H.R. âModern Nomads: The Kazakhs of Mongolia in the Contemporary World.â Brazos County Museum of Natural History. Barcus, H. Guest lecture. About 3,200,000 people live in Mongolia. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was strongly shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan. Amangul Shugatai is a researcher at the Department of Regional Studies, Institute of International Affairs at the Mongolian Academy of Science. Â Thus, changing economic circumstances in Kazakhstan and in Mongolia, combined with policy changes in Kazakhstan and changing perceptions of Mongolian Kazakhs about the benefits of moving to Kazakhstan begin to influence migration decisions during this period. Minnesota State University. Barcus, Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Grant, Contemporary Mongolia Program; awarded through the University of Pittsburgh; 2004, âPopulation, Environment, and Geo-Spatial Technologies in Mongoliaâ, Werner, Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Grant, Contemporary Mongolia Program; awarded through the University of Pittsburgh; 2004 âWomenâs Experiences in Mongoliaâ. In real life, eagle hunting is a tradition among the Kazakh nomads that is practiced throughout the year. 2016. âNomads and Transnational Migration: Reflections on Fieldwork and Community Change in Western Mongolia. She is currently the Department Head in the Department of Anthropology at Texas A&M University (updated June 2018). The Kazakh population is largely clustered in the far western province of Mongolia, Bayan-Ulgii Aimag, with the second and third largest clusters in Hovd Aimag and Ulaanbaatar. Â Quotas overall were quite low during this period, reflecting changes in Kazakhstanâs economy and demographics. Fermented mare’s milk (koumiss) and horse flesh were highly esteemed but usually available only to the prosperous. 2. Â The nomadic economy is strongly influenced by traditional gender roles â men herd, women cook, care for children and prepare textiles. Barcus, Holly. Bryan, Texas. 2015. While successful middle-aged business owners and herders are relatively satisfied with life in Mongolia, their children consider attending university in Mongolia, especially Ulaanbaatar, or Kazakhstan. 2011. Â Implications of Transnational Migration for Mongolian Kazakhs. She now researches scholarly communications, research data management, and librarian professionalization in America and Kazakhstan (updated June 2018). Werner, Cynthia. She also studied Linguistics in Russia to improve her language skills in 2008. Where do the Mongolian Kazakhs live? Why are the Mongolian Kazakhs migrating to Kazakhstan? Kazakhs definitely have some heritage of some ancient Turkic-speaking tribes that existed when GK was alive. Pp. $5,950. Privileged Exclusion in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan: Ethnic Return Migration, Citizenship, and the Politics of (Not) Belonging. Uyghurs, Turkmens, and Uzbeks also has similiar look but I believe they can be distinguished from the Kazakhs. Â Her research focuses on the intersection of migration and rural community change with an explicit focus on how migration of ethnic minorities is changing the composition and character of rural places. (updated July 2018). Minorities make up 18.2 per cent of the population and include Barga, Bayad, Buryat, Chantuu, Durbet, Kazakhs and Tsaatan mainly concentrated in the aimags of Bayan-Ölgii, Dornod, Hentiy, Khovd and Uvsnd. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Trans-National Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. August 1-7. âMoving Towards the State: The Benefits of Economic Citizenship for Mongoliaâs Kazakhs.â Society for Economic Anthropology Annual Meetings. Barcus, Holly. Namara Brede (BA Macalester College, 2010) spent two years working with Dr. Barcus as a research assistant for the Mongolian Kazakh Migration Project. Dr. Cynthia Werner; www.cynthiawerner.com. Invited conference. The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the area in the 13th century. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. She graduated from the Nanhua University of Taiwan in 2010, with a Master of Arts degree in International Relations – Asia Pacific Studies 2010. Faculty Research Enhancement Award, College of Liberal Arts, Texas A&M, 2005 âFrom an Imagined Homeland to Immediate Needs: Social Networks, Gender and the Migration of Kazakhs from Mongolia to Kazakhstanâ, 2004 Â Returning Home: Gender, Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. Government efforts were more successful in Kazakhstan, however, in Mongolia the government did not successfully collective the nomads until the 1950s. Barcus. Kazakhs constitute 1. Â Numbering over 100,000 in the 2000 Census, they comprise the largest ethnic minority in Mongolia, although only 4% of the total population. Today it is practised by Kazakhs and the Kyrgyz in contemporary Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as diasporas in Bayan … She received her M.A. The Kazakh ethnic group makes up around 90% of the population of Mongolia's Bayan-Olgi province, with around 100,000 Kazakhs spread thinly across the wilderness. Â Like the other programs, this program continues to offer incentives to oralmander for immigration, however, this program targets particular settlement areas, specifically in the northern regions of Kazakhstan. 2011. During the late transition period, the most important change to immigration programs offered by the Kazakhstan government was the introduction of the âBlessed Migrationâ program on January 1, 2009. Kipchak of Turkic descent, 2. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Transnational Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. 96% are Mongolian and 4% are Kazakhs, also known as eagle hunters. Today, Bayan-Olgii has a distinctly Kazakh culture. Nurshash Shugatay is a teacher in Ulaanbaatar city from Mongolia. Barcus, Holly R. and Cynthia Werner. Werner, Cynthia and Celia Emmelhainz. Poster Presentation. $4,615. "Qazaqstan" TV channel and Kanat Beisekeyev present the first episode of “The Nomads" documentary series about the life and traditions of Kazakh immigrants. Although Mongolian is the official language, the Kazakhs use their own language for everyday communication, known as Kazakh or Qazaqsa. Physiographically, Mongolia and Kazakhstan are largely comprised of grassland steppe, although both countries also contain other eco-regions including deserts, mountains and forests. Â She received her M.A. Â In 1997, the Agency of Migration and Demography was developed as part of the 1997 Law on Migration and Population to assist migrants and to streamline citizenship procedures across different groups of oralman. During World War I and again under Soviet rule, many Kazakhs were killed in repressions or fell victim to famines; still others fled with their herds to Sinkiang in China or to Afghanistan, and the remaining nomads were eventually settled on collective farms. From 2006-2009, we worked to assess the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs. From the perspective of potential migrants, increased competition for inclusion in the quota represents an important shift in the perceived benefits and availability of quota benefits. July 2012. Barcus, Holly & Werner, Cynthia. During this period, the quota declined from 3,000 families during the early transition period, to approximately 500 in 1999-2000, jumping again to 2,655 by 2002. Â Selectivity of migration increased during this period as well, reflecting both the increasing complexity as well as increased information flowing between Kazakhstan and Mongolia, leading to fewer new migrants during this period. 14-17 November 2008. The Kazakhs of western Mongolia are one of the world’s last surviving nomadic cultures. Thirdly, people are not trying to say Kazakhs have nothing to do with Mongol Empire or Genghis Khan/Chinggis Khan. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Trans-National Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. March 6, 2009. In Sinkiang, however, many nomadic groups remain. Barcus, H.R. Many Mongolian Kazakhs also send children to work or to school in Ulaanbaatar, where there is a growing population of Kazakhs. The Kazaks are a Turkic/Central Asian people who entered Mongolia to escape ethnic persecution from Russia. 2014. There are around 100,000 Kazakhs in Western Mongolia, mostly in the semi autonomous province of Bayan-Ulgii. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Her job functions were related to the urban and rural field research, population settlement issues, migration processes and settlement and contemporary urbanization issues of Mongolia at the Institute of Geography-Geoecology. 2006 Barcus, H. Guest lecture. Barcus & Brede. Scythians of Iran descent, (Also Sakas, Sarmatians, and Massagets). Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. Mid-Transition Years (1997-2002) She worked as a research assistant with this project from May 2006 to July 2010. During the summers of 2006, 2008, and 2009 we conducted interviews in Ulgii and in several rural locations across the province. Â Tbilisi, Georgia. Â The Kazakh language belongs to Turkic family of languages, and is the dominant language in Bayan-Ulgii. and Ph.D. in anthropology from Indiana University and has taught at the University of Iowa and Pitzer College. Werner, Cynthia and Holly R. Barcus. Â While the pastoral economy plays an important role in the economy of Bayan-Ulgii, trade and tourism have also emerged as the border crossings between Mongolia and China and Russia have increased and as air transport and tourism have increased in Mongolia more generally. Â She studied issues of migration policy of Kazakhstan and worked as a research assistant with this project from June 2006 and June 2008- 2009. She has worked as a researcher at the Social Economic Geography Department of the Institute of Geography-Geoecology of the Mongolian Academy of Science (MAS) from 2006 to 2016. Â She works in both the rural United States, specifically in Appalachia and the Great Plains, and in western rural Mongolia. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Â She is the Past-President of the Central Eurasian Studies Society (2012-15). Minnesota State University. Â While there, he completed independent research on the changing socio-cultural landscape of Mongolian Kazakh Islam and Muslim identity, which formed the basis for his senior honors thesis. Mongolian is the language of inter-ethnic communication and official language of government and business. Immobility and the Re-Imaginings of Ethnic Identity among Mongolian Kazakhs in the 21st Century. Barcus, H. Invited Guest Lecture. Â The soum center of this arid and mountainous province is Ulgii, a town of approximately 30,000 people. In 2010, Mongolia's ethnic minority groups faced a number of challenges, as did the majority ethnic group, Khalks. Globalizations 14(2):32-50. and C. Werner. Barcus, Holly. 25 October 2008. Â By 1989, the Kazakh population grew to approximately 120,000 individuals. 2013. âPlace identity and immobility choices among ethnic minorities: Transitioning landscapes in a transnational communityâ 21st Colloquium of the Consortium for Sustainable Rural Systems, International Geographical Union. In the 19th century an increasing number of Kazakhs along the borders began to plant some crops. Â Her undergraduate degree is Geographist and Geographical Teacher from Mongolia National University in 2004. Kazakh herding families in Mongolia today are considered semi-nomadic. Their nomadic life was gradually curtailed by the encroachment of settled agriculture on the pasturelands. The Kazakhs were traditionally pastoral nomads, dwelling year-round in portable, dome-shaped tents (called gers, or yurts) constructed of dismountable wooden frames covered with felt. 651-696-6000, Parents & The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities, Practices, and Politics. and Werner, C.A. Â The Kazakh population is concentrated in the western province of Bayan-Ulgii, a region physically separated from Kazakhstan by a 47-60 km mountainous stretch of Chinese and Russian territory. 18 February 2010. Â Geographische Rundschau: International Edition 3:4-10. Aid & Tuition, Admitted 17th Annual Colloquium of the International Geographical Union Commission on the Sustainability of Rural Systems, 2009. Bayan-Ulgii is located in the Altai Mountain range and has the highest average elevation in Mongolia. Kazakh nomads have grazed their livestock near the Altai Mountains for hundreds of years. 1863-1890. The Kazakhs are the second most numerous Turkic-speaking people in Central Asia after the Uzbeks. Mobility and Immobility in a Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration Among the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. Since the mid-1990s, she has conducted fieldwork in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Mongolia on topics that include transnational migration, international tourism development, bride abduction, the impacts of nuclear testing, gift exchange and bribery, and bazaar trade. This has lead to some tension between Kazakhs and Mongolians, and there is a level of discrimination apparent in a minority of people. Barcus, H. Invited Lecture. 2009-10; âMobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhsâ (International Studies Program fellow). Barcus, H.R. and Cynthia Werner. Â Some households will move only two times, once in the spring to the summer pastures and again in the fall back to the winter pastures. 8-10 April 2010. ELLA KELLEHER WRITES — Many are already aware of how the Uyghur people are interned at “reeducation” camps in Xinjiang, the Western province of China. International Research and Travel Grant, International Programs, Texas A&M, 2008; âMobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhsâ, Werner. Naiman of Mongol descent, (also Khereid, Jalayr, Khongirad, Khatagin), 3. 2015. Macalester College Stipendiary Fellow, Glasscock Center for Humanities Research, Texas A&M, 2008-09; âMobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhsâ (Anthropology Department fellow). Groups at various levels in the tribal hierarchy had chiefs, but only rarely was the Kazakh nation, or even one of the hordes, united under a single chief. The Kazakhs of Western Mongolia: Transnational Migration from 1990-2008. Stan Brunn. Las Vegas, Nevada. Â Minnesota State University, Geography Department Colloquium. 19th Meeting of the International Geographical Union Commission on Rural Sustainability, Galway, Ireland. Â At the time of our study, it had a population of nearly 2.8 million people with a population density of less than 2 people per square km. Student-Faculty Summer Research Collaboration with Namara Brede, Macalester College. Â Macalester College. Barcus, H. Invited Guest Lecture. Â Transnational Identities, Migration, and the Importance of Cultural and Social Ties between Communities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. While nearly 1 million Mongolians were living in Ulaanbaatar, the remaining 1 million were dispersed across the country. The vocabulary of Kazakh has been influenced by Arabic, Persian, Mongolian, and Russian. Choosing to Stay: (Im)Mobility Decisions Amongst Mongoliaâs Ethnic Kazakhs. During the study period, local schools taught in either Mongolian or Kazakh (this has since changed). Â Our research is predominantly associated with Bayan-Ulgii (2006, 2008, 2009), although during the summer of 2006 we also conducted interviews in Hovd Aimag. December. (updated July 2018). One of the primary analytical and mapping tools that she uses in her research is a Geographic Information System; an invaluable tool for assessing spatial patterns and evaluating the underlying processes and factors that influence change at multiple scales. Â Essentially, three distinct periods of migration are identifiable and correspond with both macro-scale changes such as changes in economic conditions and immigration policies. Â Documented Kazakh migration to Mongolia begins in 1840 with many migrants arriving from areas now Western China. In the past, they were perhaps the most influential of the various Central Asian ethnic groups. GEOFEST Minnesota. Â During the first period (1991-1996), which was characterized by economic crisis in both Mongolia and Kazakhstan, the government of Kazakhstan passed a series of immigration reforms to assist ethnic Kazakhs in returning to Kazakhstan. 2006 Mainstream media propagates that both ethnic Uyghurs… The Kazakhs of Mongolia are culturally and ethnically different from Mongolians with language and religion as the two primary cultural markers. Alex Diener, a Geographer at the University of Kansas, suggests that there were two primary reasons for these shifts: first, the invitations for diasporic communities to return led to greater return than anticipated by the Kazakhstan government leading them to impose more restrictive quotas to limit in-migration, and second, the in-migration of oralmandar declined as migrants realized the economic situation of Kazakhstan. Mongolia is a landlocked country wedged between two regional giants â Russia and China. An estimated five percent of Mongolian citizens are members of Turkic peoples, primarily Kazakhs and … The Kazakhs migrated seasonally to find pasturage for their livestock, including horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and a few camels. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: singular: Қазақ, Qazaq,, plural: Қазақтар, Qazaqtar, ; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly inhabit the Ural Mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Russia, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and China), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent. Â 2007. Program to Enhance Scholarly and Creative Activities Award, Vice President for Research, Texas A&M, 2006; âReturning Home: Gender, Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongoliaâ, Werner. Kazakh residents in Mongolia, they have also caused them to reconsider the value and meaning of homeland. The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the area in the 13th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Kazakhs of Mongolia belong to a larger group of people who live primarily in Kazakstan. Most families return to specific pastures year after year with use of that pasture being passed down through families. Few realize, however, that ethnic Kazakhs have also been subjected to the same mass extermination and forced labor. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Barcus, H. Transnational Kazakh Migration in Western Mongolia. She received her MA in anthropology under Dr. Cynthia Werner in 2011, and her MLIS in library science in 2014. Students, Connect with Early Transition Years (1991-1996) Since 2006, we have been assessing the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs. Decision, Financial Approximately 94 percent of the population of Mongolia are ethnic Mongols, mainly from the Khalkha clan. April 2007. Discovering a sense of well-being through the revival of Islam: Profiles of Kazakh Imams in western Mongolia. Geoforum 56:119-128. Kazakhs account for only about 0.4% of Mongolia's population, while Mongolian ethnic groups make up 95%. Â Nomadic pastoralism has been the primary form of human subsistence for centuries. 2012. âKazakhstan is my homeland; Mongolia is my fatherlandâ: Considering the role of place identity and other cultural factors in shaping mobility and immobility decisions in a transnational communityâ Central Eurasian Studies Society Meeting. 4 % are Kazakhs, also known as eagle hunters: Transitions, Development and Social.! 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