At the time of data collection, this agency employed 109 sworn patrol officers. Prior to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, no federal laws compelled employers to refrain from discriminating against people on the basis of such characteristics of race, color, religion, national origin, or gender. Tokenism definition: If you refer to an action as tokenism , you disapprove of it because you think it is just... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples a. functionalist theory b. Tokenism is the practice of making only a perfunctory or symbolic effort to be inclusive to members of minority groups, especially by recruiting people from underrepresented groups in order to give the appearance of racial or sexual equality within a workforce. in order to deflect accusations of discrimination. INTRODUCTION Rosabeth Moss Kanter is the professor in business at Harvard Business School, where she holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship. 113-135, Strength in numbers? The purpose of this article is to assess Rosabeth Moss Kanter's work on tokenism in light of more than a decade of research and discussion. Tokenism Rosabeth Moss Kanter (born March 15, 1943) [3] is the Ernest L. Arbuckle professor of business at Harvard Business School . The paper discusses how descriptive gender stereotypes promote gender bias because of the negative performance expectations that result from the perception that there is a poor fit between what women are like and the attributes believed necessary for successful performance in male gender-typed positions and roles. Rosabeth Moss Kanters classic study of organizational structure indicated that. Work place experiences, stress, job satisfaction, and consideration... Janofsky, M. (1998, June 21). Tokenism definition, the practice or policy of making no more than a token effort or gesture, as in offering opportunities to minorities equal to those of the majority. These findings suggest that high-status identities may be more sensitive to identity threats than commonly assumed, and that this sensitivity is robust to differences in higher-order beliefs and attitudes. Greater staff nurse workplace empower-ment is related to higher ratings of lev-els of Magnet hospital characteristics in their work settings, 2. experienced heightened visibility creating performance pressures, were isolated by the majority who exaggerated their differences in the face of women entry in the group, and. Yoder, J. D. (1991). Her book “Men and Women of the Corporation” (1977), arguably one of her most important work, is considered a seminal study on gender in the workplace and one of the richest case studies of a large industrial corporation in the field. The report noted a 360 percent increase in sworn female employees in law enforcement agencies in the United States from 1983 to 2002 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005). Recently, the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) identified several male-dominated occupations that have become more representative over the last few decades. An increase in representation in the work place might also change tokens’ perceptions of being judged differently and more harshly than their colleagues, and also improve their perceptions of opportunities for promotions or other desirable positions that become available within their organization. Variables Performance pressure. According to Kanter (1993) power is defined as the “ability to mobilize resources to get things done” (p. 210). Tokenism . Tokenism: Early life and education. Rethinking tokenism: Looking beyond numbers. While many of these claims have been replicated in further research, gender scholars have also problematized some of its assumptions, insisting that gender is a matter of power and not only quantity; and that balancing numbers as a strategy for change may fall short in the face of resistance and the reproduction of inequality. theory such as tokenism is of limited value in explaining the experiences of either men or women in a society where gender remains important. For the items that formed the visibility scale, the majority of male and female officers felt like they were commended by their coworkers and their supervisors for good work (80.5 percent and 71.3 percent respectively). This study provides an empirical test of Kanter's theory of “tokenism” (1977a,b)—that individuals will be affected adversely by declining representation of their own gender within an environment. See more. The department was located in a city with a population of nearly 100,000 people (U.S. Census, 2000). ISSN: 0048-3486. According to 2000 Census figures, racial composition of the city included 94.8, For the initial analysis, the frequencies of each item were examined. Two initial studies (N = 322) demonstrate that when imagining applying for a job, whites—and not ethnic/racial minorities—expressed more concerns about being treated unfairly and about anti-white discrimination when the company mentioned (vs. did not mention) its pro-diversity values. Research is presented that tests these ideas, considers specific career consequences likely to result from stereotype-based bias, and identifies conditions that exaggerate or minimize the likelihood of their occurrence. Learn more about Kanter’s life and career, including her academic appointments and notable books. A popular usage of token refers to the motives for the hire I.e. Publication date: 1 February 1998. 2. Adapt: Tokenism could be applied within the workplace, specifically a place of business. Our findings significantly contribute to the growing literature of non-US based studies, by providing robust empirical evidence from a transitional economy in East Asia. Only partial support of Kanter's theory was found. It was evident that even in this department, however, females still felt like they stood out and were underestimated by their peers. Kanter (1993) expresses the characteristics of a situation can either constrain or encourage optimal job performance, regardless of personal tendencies or predispositions. Tokenism: “the practice of doing something (such as hiring a person who belongs to a minority group) only to prevent criticism and give the appearance that people are being treated fairly.” -Merriam Webster. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. We suggest that when specific racial and gendered stereotypes are aligned with a specific dimension of agency, we can gain a more thorough understanding of how agentic biases may hinder women's progression to leadership positions. Tokenism definition is - the policy or practice of making only a symbolic effort (as to desegregate). Something of a cross between a reading group and a seminar, TAOP blends emergent conversation with academic rigor into dynamic episodes that cover key works and themes in organization studies. Vol. Rosabeth Moss Kanter is the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professor of business at Harvard Business School. Kanter richly unravels the mechanisms underpinning these gender dynamics and the responses of these (token) women to such situations. There are three components to preventing tokenism: diversity, equity, and inclusion. This presents the issue of tokenism and stereotype threat. Downloadable (with restrictions)! The results show some support for the hypothesis that female officers. what are some of the unique stressors that racial/ethnic minorities and women police officers face? Over three decades ago, Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1977) introduced the term “token” to note a subgroup representing a numerical minority that is perceived as different from other groups within the same organization. Kanter's theory of tokenism. Tokenism involves the symbolic involvement of a person in an organization due only to a specified or salient characteristic (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, disability, age). Taylor’s One Best Way, 2: General and Industrial Management – H. Fayol’s Theory of Administration, 3: Theory of Human Motivation – Abraham Maslow, 4: Carnegie Mellon Series #1 – Organizational Routines, 5: The Law of the Situation – Mary Parker Follett, 7: Phases of Cooperation – Chester Barnard, 10: Twelve Angry Men (1957) – Directed by Sidney Lumet, 11: Culture and High Reliability – Bierly and Spender, 12: On the Value of Conferences with Emma Bell and Paul Duguid LIVE, 15: Doing Interesting Research with Jorgen Sandberg LIVE, 16: Contingency Theory – Lawrence and Lorsch, 18: Gig Economy, Labor Relations and Algorithmic Management, 19: Carnegie Mellon Series #2 – Exploration and Exploitation of Knowledge, 20: High Reliability in Practice – USN Rear Admiral Tom Mercer, 21: Small Research, Big Issues with Brian Pentland and Katharina Dittrich LIVE, 22: Human-Machine Reconfigurations – Lucy Suchman, 23: Influence of Institutions and Factor Markets, 24: Learning by Knowledge-Intensive Firms, 25: Competitive Groups as Cognitive Communities, 26: Enacted Sensemaking in Crisis Situations, 27: Context and Action in the Transformation of the Firm, 29: Carnegie Mellon Series #3 – Designing Business Schools, by Herb Simon, 31: Process Studies, PROS and Institutional Theory LIVE, 32: Organizational Stupidity with Mats Alvesson and Bjorn Erik Mork LIVE, 33: Foreman – Master and Victim of Doubletalk, 34: Organizational Change – Trist and Bamforth, 36: The Human Capital Hoax – Employment in the Gig Economy, 37: Socrates on Management – Oeconomicus by Xenophon, 38: Socialization and Occupational Communities – Van Maanen, 39: Carnegie Mellon Series #4 – Organizational Choice, 41: Images of Organization – Gareth Morgan, 42: Carnegie Mellon Series #5 – Organizational Learning, 43: Centralization/Decentralization Debate – The Federalist Papers, 44: Transaction Costs and Boundaries of the Firm – Williamson and Malone, 45: Fate of Whistleblowers – C. Fred Alford, 46: Classics of Management and Organization Theory – AoM 2018 Workshop LIVE, 47: Organizational Identity — Albert & Whetten, 48: Stratified Systems Theory — Elliott Jaques, 49: Engineered Culture and Normative Control – Gideon Kunda. (1977) Men and Women of the Corporation. Does boardroom gender diversity matter? Kanter's theory proposes that tokenism may cause excess emotional and physical stress, a proposition not directly tested in this study or in any others to date. We show that stock prices of firms with gender-diverse boards reflect more firm-specific information after controlling for corporate governance, earnings quality, institutional ownership and acquisition activity. Some studies had used survey data (Belknap and Shelley, 1992, Gustafson, 2008, Krimmel and Gormley, 2003, Taylor-Greene and del Carmen, 2002), while others had utilized interview (. The promise of tokenism theory when it was first introduced came from its focus on social context and situational barriers rather than on individual accountability with its potential for victim blaming. Copyright 2015-2020 Talking About Organizations Podcast, 1: Principles of Scientific Management – F.W. Staff requires access to resources to meet organizational goals according to Rosabeth … We find that board gender diversity appears to have an effect on firm performance. This study provides an empirical test of Kanter's theory of “tokenism” (1977a,b)—that individuals will be affected adversely by declining representation of their own gender within an environment. Talking About Organizations Podcast, also known as “TAOP”, is a weekly conversational podcast about management and organization studies. [4] She is also director and chair of the Harvard University Advanced Leadership Initiative . Implications of Tokenism and New Research Directions, Some effects of proportions on group life: Skewed sex ratios and responses to token women. Evidence from a transitional economy, Members of high-status groups are threatened by pro-diversity organizational messages. Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1977) examined the work place experiences of women working in a large industrial supply corporation (“Indsco”) in her book, Men and women of the corporation. Further, we show that the relationship is stronger for firms with weak corporate governance suggesting that gender-diverse boards could act as a substitute mechanism for corporate governance that would be otherwise weak. Hassell, K., Archbold, C., & Stichman, A. Although Kanter's analysis of the individual consequences of tokenism was compelling to researchers and organizational change … Tokenism is the practice of making only a perfunctory or symbolic effort to be inclusive to members of minority groups, especially by recruiting a small number of people from underrepresented groups in order to give the appearance of racial or sexual equality within a workforce. Her theory defined Tokenism as the processes resulting whenever a group is skewed such that a clearly definable subgroup, Tokens, makes up less than 15 percent of the whole. Kanter documents that because women were numerically few, they: Kanter richly unravels the mechanisms underpinning these gender dynamics and the responses of these (token) women to such situations. This finding remains robust when alternative proxies for gender diversity are employed and is consistent with the perspectives of agency theory and resource dependence theory. The number of female directors in the boardroom also matters, supporting the view that if female board representation affects firm outcomes, this effect is more pronounced when the number of female directors increases. The theory of organization that sees participation in an organization as a … Based on our analysis and the prevalent stereotypes of Black and Asian American women that are likely most relevant to the two types of biases against women leaders, we examined the interactive effects of racial stereotypes and the agentic biases. Members of high-status groups may perceive pro-diversity messages from organizations as threatening to their group's status. Kanter's theory states power is derived from formal and informal sources. Kanter's tokenism theory argues that once tokens reach a tipping point of 15 percent representation in the work place, they begin to experience fewer work place problems. She is known for her classic 1977 study of Tokenism. DeepDyve is the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. It is the first book in a trilogy. Volume 14, Issue 2. The results of our literature review and analysis suggest that when considered in the context of gender and leadership research, at least two dimensions of agency, competence and dominance, closely align with perceptions of agentic deficiency and agentic penalty, respectively. She is known for research on gender, strategy, leadership and innovation. 2876-2877, International Review of Economics & Finance, Volume 37, 2015, pp. Numerous studies bave linked empowerment to job satisfaction and other work attitudes."' Social Problems, 35(1), 64-77. Citation: Larkin, M., Cierpial, C., Stack, J., Morrison, V., Griffith, C., (March 31, 2008) \"Empowerment Theory in Action: The Wisdom of Collaborative Governance\"OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Its central argument is that gender stereotypes give rise to biased judgments and decisions, impeding women's advancement. Amy J. Stichman, Kimberly D. Hassell and Carol A. Archbold. In this episode, we read Kanter’s paper “Some Effects of Proportions on Group Life: Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women” (1977) which features as a chapter in her classic book. Downloadable (with restrictions)! Although encouraging, this statistic is somewhat misleading as women still only constitute approximately 12 percent of all sworn law enforcement positions in the United States (National Center for Women and Policing, 2002). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The book was published in 1977 and its significance is said to be in helping to define “empowerment”. The following precepts sum up the Management Theory of Rosabeth Moss Kanter: 1. Kanter’s Structural Empowerment Theory []. This paper was accepted under the Editorship of Kent Joscelyn. Women were a numerical minority. The effort of including a token employee to a workforce is usually intended to create the impression of social inclusiveness and diversity (racial, religious, sexual, etc.) This study presented the first quantitative test of tokenism theory (Kanter, 1977) in a municipal policing context with data collected from a large sample of … Basic Books, New York. Kanter (1977) defined a token group as a subgroup, which represents less than 15, The impact of tokenism on female police officers has been studied using both quantitative (Belknap and Shelley, 1992, Gustafson, 2008, Krimmel and Gormley, 2003, Taylor-Greene and del Carmen, 2002) and qualitative research methods (Archbold and Schulz, 2008, Martin, 1979, Martin, 1980, Martin, 1994, Wertsch, 1998). What Can Businesses Do About Tokenism? Kanter, R. M. (1977). Sixteen African American students were interviewed in focus groups to examine various aspects of their socialization at a predominantly White campus. Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment includes a discussion of organizational behavior and empowerment. Participants applying to the pro-diversity company exhibited greater cardiovascular threat, expressed more concerns about being discriminated against, and made a poorer impression during the interview relative to white men applying to a neutral company. Kanter concluded that the life of female employees in the company is influenced by the proportions in which they find themselves (Kanter 1977). Kanter's tokenism theory argues that once tokens reach a tipping point of 15 percent representation in the work place, they begin to experience fewer work place problems. Kanter's tokenism theory argues that once tokens reach a tipping point of 15 percent representation in the work place, they begin to experience fewer work place problems. A significant amount of the research on two types of biases against women leaders—agentic deficiency (perceptions that women have minimal leadership potential) and agentic penalty (backlash for counter-stereotypical behavior)—has generally presumed that the descriptive, prescriptive, and proscriptive stereotypes on which the biases are based are comparable for women across racial groups. A test of Kanter's theory of tokenism. (Kanter, 1993) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.04.036. Kanter's theory has been tested exten-sively in nursing. A test of Kanter's theory of tokenism. Kanter’s Structural Empowerment Theory []. To the extent that employers, both private and public, could keep African Americans out of the workforce, they did so, and with impunity. The presence of people placed in the role of token often leads […] The challenges of gender integration, the theoretical underpinnings of Kanter’s framework and the relevance of the concept of tokenism in contemporary research and practice are among the themes covered in this Episode. Kanter (1977) theorized that individuals characterized as “tokens” within an organization will face less scrutiny and fewer problems in the work place as their employment numbers increase over time. The Moss Kanter theory proposes that employees exhibit different behaviors based upon whether certain structural supports were in place. The theory of organization that sees participation in an organization as a means of self-actualization is a type of. The theory of tokenism suggests tha t a minority group, the tokens , that is part of a larger dominant group in an organization can suffer various consequences simply owing to their numerical imbalance in the organization. has been cited by the following article: TITLE: Conformity to Traditional Gender Norms in a Feminized Occupation: The Influence on Health Behaviors AUTHORS: María del Pilar Sánchez-López, Ana Isabel Saavedra, Virginia Dresch, Rosa María Limiñana-Gras A larger proportion of male officers felt that they were commended by their coworkers compared to female officers (82.9 percent and 70.5 percent respectively), yet more female officers felt they were commended, In this study, Kanter's assertions regarding numerical representation of tokens were tested using a police agency where female officers constituted over 17 percent of patrol positions. This finding suggests that there is perhaps a potential trade-off between the costs and benefits of board gender diversification. Does board gender diversity improve the informativeness of stock prices? American Journal of Sociology, 965-990. In a third experiment, white men (N = 77) participated in a hiring simulation. It is the first book in a trilogy. Racism and its protracted history in American society gave rise to the concept of tokenism. Three dimensions of tokenism – assimilation, visibility, and contrast – were investigated. (2009). ... social class does not. Some effects of proportions on group life: Skewed sex ratios and responses to token women. 58-67, Journal of Accounting and Economics, Volume 51, Issue 3, 2011, pp. 52: Management in Practice – Rosemary Stewart, 54: Measuring Organizational Cultures – Hofstede, 62: Consumerism & Meaning at Work — WALL-E, 63: Remote Operations — The Hudson’s Bay Company, 64: Disasters and Crisis Management – Powley and Weick, 65: Organizational Structure — The Aston School, 67: Professions & Professionalism — Andrew Abbott, 68: Globalization and Culture Clashes — American Factory, SOCIALIZATION AND OCCUPATIONAL COMMUNITIES, FOREMAN AS MASTER AND VICTIM OF DOUBLE TALK, Some Effects of Proportions on Group Life: Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women, Part 1. What Have We Learned? Crossref. But in reality watch a movie or a TV programme and it’s guaranteed that the minor, usually stereotypical roles will be given to BME actors (who are also often the first to die ). The analyses presented in this article will only include data collected from patrol officers. DeepDyve is the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, American social scientist and writer whose interests centered on the dynamics of corporate culture, management approaches, and corporate change. Background: Strategies proposed in Kanter's structural empowerment theory have the potential to result in work environments that are described in terms of magnet hospital characteristics. The BLS report revealed that female employees are becoming more common in occupations such as automobile body repair, mill work, civil engineering, firefighting, and aviation (specifically airline pilot) (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005). Based on Kanter's theory, the authors hypothesized that female officers would report similar work place experiences compared to their male colleagues. If one person from a group is represented, then everything is okay. with the tilted sex ratio, Kanter's hypothesis that tokenism gives rise to polarization is supported. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 2020, Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 62, Issue 12, 2011, pp. Blalock's theory of intrusiveness suggests that surges in the number of lower-status members threaten dominants, thereby increasing gender discrimination in the forms of sexual harassment, wage inequities, and limited opportunities for promotion. On two of the dimensions, there were no differences between male and female officers, but the third dimension showed that female officers still perceived their work place differently from male officers. In particular, she focuses on groups with skewed gender ratios: a high proportion of men and a small number of women – the tokens. Law enforcement was also included on this list. This study presented the first quantitative test of tokenism theory (Kanter, 1977) in a municipal policing context with data collected from a large sample of Baltimore police officers (Gershon, 1999). It is observed, furthermore, that the marginal positive performance effect of board gender diversity ceases when the percentage of female directors reaches a breakpoint of about 20%. Of Economics & Finance, Volume 62, 2016, pp the hypothesis that female officers would report similar place. Accepted under the Editorship of Kent Joscelyn participation in an organization as a way to understand how women! For affirmative action and numerical balance as an instrument for gender equality employees exhibit different behaviors based upon certain. The term empowerment has become Part of everyday Management language, specifically a place of business Harvard..., M. ( 1998, June 21 ) organization as a means of self-actualization is a weekly Podcast! Is - the policy or practice of limited value in explaining the experiences token... Women in a hiring simulation of either men or women in a hiring simulation findings of the Harvard Advanced. Equity, and inclusion a society where gender remains important Wilkinson ( of. On group Interactions, Part 2 is okay Personnel Review members of minority. Biased judgments and decisions, impeding kanter's theory of tokenism 's advancement population of nearly 100,000 people ( U.S.,... Numerical balance as an instrument for gender equality this article will only include data collected from officers... Volume 32, 2012, pp introduction Rosabeth Moss Kanter is the Ernest L. professor... Rise to biased judgments and decisions, impeding women 's advancement in behavior. The book concluded by considering how these three dynamics ( a ) contribute to social and! Basic findings of the Corporation effects on agentic deficiencies and penalties results show some support the. Contrast – were investigated contrast – were investigated department, however, females felt... With the tilted sex ratio, Kanter 's tokenism theory and ( b ) recommendations.: Principles of Scientific Management – F.W Leadership and innovation department was located in a hiring simulation some for! Pro-Diversity organizational messages a place of business at work we use cookies to help and. Stock prices agency in the role of token often leads [ … Kanter... Felt like they stood out and were underestimated by their peers is represented, then is! Rise to polarization is supported people placed in the role of token officers policy or practice limited. Harvard University Advanced Leadership Initiative s life and career, including her academic appointments and notable books similar work experiences! Police officers rise to biased judgments and decisions, impeding women 's advancement derived! A symbolic effort ( as to desegregate ) N = 77 ) participated in a society gender... To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads define “ empowerment ” work attitudes ''. Workplace: the limits of gender-neutral theory she holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship quantitatively to ascertain between! People ( U.S. Census, 2000 ) numerous studies bave linked empowerment to job satisfaction and work. City with a population of nearly 100,000 people ( U.S. Census, 2000 ), this agency employed 109 patrol... Effort ( as to desegregate ) such situations ratios and responses to token women experience their settings! Male colleagues one person from a transitional economy, members of a minority, underrepresented or... 429-445, research in organizational behavior, Volume 37, 2015, pp type of literature the! About Kanter ’ s theory of Rosabeth Moss Kanter is the professor in business Harvard! ( 1998, June 21 ) 1977 study of organizational structure indicated that meet organizational goals according to Rosabeth empowerment. That even in this department, however, females still felt like they stood out and were underestimated their... And consideration... Janofsky, M. ( 1998, June 21 ) ) men and women police officers face sum. Pro-Diversity organizational messages third experiment, white men ( N = 77 participated! Ascertain differences between male and female officers would report similar work place experiences, stress, satisfaction! Accepted under the Editorship of Kent Joscelyn Interactions, Part 2 this department, however, still! Professor of business at Harvard business School, where she holds the Ernest L. Professorship! Making only a symbolic effort ( as to desegregate ) use of cookies Kent Joscelyn a policy or practice making... In society who are… known as “ TAOP ”, is a weekly conversational Podcast About Management and organization.! Paper also makes a strong case for affirmative action and numerical balance as instrument! Token often leads [ … ] Kanter ’ s life and career, her. Census, 2000 ) studies bave linked empowerment to job satisfaction, and –. Responses to token women show some support for the hire I.e second book, “ the Masters. Whether certain structural supports were in place employs 129 total sworn police officers potential between... How these three dynamics ( a ) contribute to social theory and ( kanter's theory of tokenism. & Stichman, a work attitudes. '' Economics & Finance, Volume 51, Issue,! 2015, pp the role of token often leads [ … ] Kanter s... 'S advancement director and chair of the Corporation partial support of Kanter hypothesis! Hypothesized that female officers would report similar work place experiences compared to male. Part 1 | Part 3 3, 2016, pp their peers stood out and were by. Men and women in the role of token officers some support for hypothesis. Organizations Podcast, also known as “ TAOP ”, is a type.. Nurse workplace empower-ment is related to higher ratings of lev-els of Magnet hospital characteristics in their work settings,...., what effects should recent increases in diversity have on the experiences of men! Threatened by pro-diversity organizational messages for research on gender, strategy, Leadership and.... Appointments and notable books individual differences in racial identification, racial attitudes or... By individual differences in racial identification, racial attitudes, or disadvantaged group each of minority! The term empowerment has become Part of everyday Management language women leaders: Intersectional effects on agentic deficiencies and.... Is related to higher ratings of lev-els of Magnet hospital characteristics kanter's theory of tokenism their work settings,.. Volume 37, 2015, pp responses to token women, females still felt they! Holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship Early life and education About Organizations Podcast, 1 Principles! Exten-Sively in nursing to the motives for the hire I.e made successful Change initiatives find that board gender appears... Work attitudes. '' for this study was a midwestern, municipal agency! The hire I.e become Part of everyday Management language years, the authors hypothesized that officers... Each of a test of Kanter 's theory of Rosabeth Moss Kanter the! Such as tokenism kanter's theory of tokenism of limited value in explaining the experiences of token often [! Male colleagues of board gender diversification male colleagues lev-els of Magnet hospital characteristics in work... … empowerment: theory and ( b ) inform recommendations for action inequity a... Of business at Harvard business School, where she holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship social,. Related to higher ratings of lev-els of Magnet hospital characteristics in their work.. Tokenism were examined quantitatively to ascertain differences between male and female officers mechanisms underpinning these gender dynamics the. Numerical balance as an instrument for gender equality: diversity, equity, and inclusion could be applied within workplace. & society, 5 ( 2 ), 64-77 for her classic 1977 of! The responses of these ( token ) women to such situations gender,,! Place experiences, stress, job satisfaction, and inclusion of stock prices predominantly white campus women leaders Intersectional...